History of Kashan carpet
Kashan carpet is one of the most famous hand-made carpets representing the art of Iranian carpet weaving. According to historical discoveries, Kashan city has been producing precious fabrics in ancient times. So that Kashan can be considered as an inheritor of all kinds of velvet and satin embroidery fabrics and taffeta that have been known as Hormozi fabrics for many years. It has caused significant fame for Iran in all over the world. It is noteworthy that many famous people in history, such as Marco Polo, Knight Chardin and Antoine Shirley, all praised Kashan’s art in the field of textiles, rugs and carpets.
Another brilliant record of Kashan in the field of carpet production is the existence of exquisite carpets of the Safavid period which are now kept in museums and large collections. It should be noted that silk carpets weaving with silver and gold, also known as Shah Abbasi carpets, are attributed to Kashan.
Current situation of carpet weaving in Kashan
Kashan like other parts of Iran has experienced a decline in carpet weaving due to incidents such as the invasion of Mongol and Afghan tribes and invaders. nevertheless, Kashan with its carpet and rug products, has played a significant role in renewal of Iran artistic life. In general, Kashan carpet weaving can be divided into several completely separate categories in terms of designs and technical details of weaving which include Kashan, Natanz and Joshaqan products.
Masters of carpet weaving in Kashan
Among the elders and professors in the field of Kashan carpet weaving, we can point out Mirza Nasrollah and Mr.Afsari, Karimpour, Isfahani and Taghdisi. Some of these dignitaries are still working in Kashan rug weaving and part of the market of this art. They have taken the value into their own hands.
Machine-made rugs in Kashan
In addition to its unique handmade carpets, Kashan is also known for the production of machine-made carpets. The fundamental developments and industrial progress of the city’s carpet industrial production actually started in 1986, and this has caused more than 600 units of large and small carpet production in Kashan. Just like other carpet weaving regions in Iran, Kashan machine-made carpets have a more reasonable and cheaper price than handmade carpets due to various reasons such as the high speed of weaving and the raw materials used in their production.
Structure and characteristics of Kashan carpet
Most of the wool used in Kashan carpet weaving is produced from herds of cities such as Khorasan, Azerbaijan, Kermanshah and Tehran. The size of lint varies in the woven carpets in different areas of Kashan. For example, in the woolen carpets of Kashan itself, the height of the lint is medium. While in rural carpets from Kashan such as Aran, these lint in the common weaves of this village has more basic colors, and it is much taller.
In the weaving of Kashan rugs, cotton thraed is mainly used as a weft and warp, and only in the weaving of very delicate carpets, silk thread is used. Structurally, the underneath warp is thicker in these carpets than top warp. Two types of Kashani thread with urban and Isfahani names are used for this purpose. The main difference between these two types of yarn is in their thickness, so that the 10-layered Isfahani weave is equivalent to the 12-layared weft weave.
One of the main features of Kashan rugs is their very delicate texture, so that the details of all the designs are clearly visible, as well as the velvet surface which is due to the use of excellent merino wool. After importing Australian wool by one of the citizens of Kashan, the basis for the production of new carpets in Kashan was stablished which has led to the production of different carpets.
Features of Kashan carpet
As we said above, the very fine and delicate texture is one of the characteristics of Kashan rug which is the reason why the patterns used in these carpets are prominent and have a more visible appearance.
- The presence of lacquer background with a crimson border is one of the general features of Kashan carpet.
- Kashan carpet Raj count is mostly low and between 30 and 45 Raj(wate).
- One of the features of Kashan rugs has been their size for a long time, although today Kashan carpets are woven in different sizes.
- White Islamic rugs around elastic and bergamot and fringes are also other features of Kashan rugs.
Types of Kashan rug designs
Kashan rug is very similar to Isfahan city in terms of design and patterns. It can be said that in terms of design, it is influenced by Isfahan’s bergamot design and elasticity. There is only a difference that it does not have the elegance and precision of Isfahan, and a lower color scheme is also used in it. It is good to know that in the past, bird motifs were used more for weaving Kashan carpets inside bergamot, margins and elastics. While today they use more designs that are known as Shah Abbasi’s floral designs. This design is very beautiful and unique and has attracted a lot of fans. As you know, the designs of carpets and rugs in each region are rooted in the ethnic culture and conditions of the regions. The city of Kashan is no exception to this rule.
The most famous carpets of Kashan
- Mohtasham Kashan
- Kashan pot and tree
- Hunting animal
- Bush related to Kashan
- Sajjada or prayer carpet of Kashan
- five-color carpet of Kashan
In terms of color scheme used in Kashan rug, it should be said that in the past most of the colors were very vivid with high contrast, but today, due to the market of this product, softer colors are also used.
Handicrafts related to Kashan carpet weaving
Dyeing is one of the handicrafts related to Kashan carpet and rug weaving with a long history of textile, the traditional method of which is largely obsolete today.
- Halaji, spinning and weaving ( the art of warp winder)