The dome of Jabaliyeh in Kerman is one of the historical attractions of Iran that has many secrets. In this article of Chiyakotravel, we will introduce this structure to you, show you the photos of Jabaliyeh dome of Kerman, take a look at its special features, and finally provide you with information about visiting the Jabaliyeh dome of Kerman.
Why Jabaliyeh dome of Kerman?
- It is one of the main attractions of Kerman and is considered as a symbol of this city.
- It is considered a mysterious building and this features doubles its charm.
- It is historically and culturally important for people of the city, and Nowruz ceremonies, are sometimes held and in the surrounding area, and the Kerman people gather together there.
- This building has a stone museum and valuable inscriptions are kept in it.
Familiarity with Jabaliyeh dome
In the east of Kerman, an octagonal building with a brick dome attracts the attention of every newcomer; A stone structure called Jabaliyeh dome and is also known as Gabri dome, Zig dome and Ganj dome. This stone building has been included in Kerman Stone Museum since 2004 and Jabaliyeh Park has been created in the surrounding area. One of the important features of this building is that it is made of stone and it is probably also called Jabal Sangi or Jabal Sang for this reason. The uncertainty of the history and usage of the building has also led to it being considered a mysterious structure for which it is not known why and when it was left in this place.
This heritage has been in the list of national works of Iran since 29 Azar 1316 with number 296.
History of Jabaliyeh dome
The exact date for the construction of Jabaliya dome is not yet known, but the name of this monument is mentioned for the first time in Tazkirat al-Awliya which was written in 925 to 939 AH. Some European scholars believe that this building was built during the Seljuk period. Others, however, consider this building belongs to the pre-Islamic period and state that “Jabali” is a distorted form of the word “Gabari” and as a result, “G” has been changed to “J” and other changes have taken place in this way. Based on the fact that this building is also called Gabar Dome, they consider it as a Zoroastrian and Gabari building and belong to the pre-Islamic period. On the other hand, the style and context of the building is not so similar to fire temples, and for this reason, others believe that either this building belongs to the late Sassanid period and was repaired in the early Islamic period, or inspired by the early Islamic period. It is made of Sassanid architecture. However, there is evidence of repair of the building in different periods, one of which was ordered by Muhammad ibn Elias in Seljuk period.
Here it is not bad to mention the writing of an English diplomat, writer and geographer named Sir Percy Sykes. Around 1900, he established the British consulate in Kerman and wrote about the days of this building:
As you pass the cemetery, you will see an octagonal stone building with a dome in the shape of two crescents, with a diameter of 18 feet inside and 18 feet on each side, the tip of which is brick and the end of which is a circle. This place is called Jabaliyeh and the only stone building in Kerman is this Jabaliyeh dome.
Application of Jabaliyeh dome
It is not yet clear why this building was built here; But such possibilities are raised:
- The tomb of a Zoroastrian who was considered by Zoroastrian followers and was destroyed in the flood of Kerman in 1333.
- Tomb of Seyed Mohammad Tabashiri
- The tomb of Daniel Hakim known as Pir Morad
- A Buddhist temple (stupa) built during the Mongol era.
Architecture of Jabaliyeh dome
According to what is mentioned in various sources, the height of the building reaches 18 to 20 meters. On the eight sides of the building, there were eight doors, seven of which were blocked with stone to strengthen the building and prevent destruction, and only one door was accessible. The body of the structure is made of stone and the dome is made of brick, and carcass stone and plaster have been used in the construction of the outer part of the walls. The interesting thing about this building is that ash, eggs and camel milk were used instead of water in the construction of the Jabaliyeh dome, and this has increased its strength. In general, several sections can be considered for the structure of this building:
The lower part is actually the octagonal part that has thick walls. On each side of this structure, a large arched facade can be seen, and to reduce the load of the building inside the arches, a gable has been used; Decorative plate with a square or rectangular shape that is used above the entrances and the margin under the dome. On the sides of the arches, there are two gables that are placed on top of each other; The lower gable has a truncated arch and the upper one has a rectangular shape.
The middle part
From the top to the bottom of the dome is the middle part of the building. This section is formed on a hexagonal base after a 1.5 meter wide ring, and has a diameter less than the original diameter. Sharp arches are the view of this section which are created just above the rectangular skylights of the first part. In the middle of the sides, one by one, there are eight skylights.
The upper part
In the upper part of dome of Jabaliyeh, we see the retreat of the facade according to the width of one meter from the second part which has caused a foot or a ring. This ring surrounds the structure with 32 sides and 24 rectangular gables.
The monolithic dome or a layer of this building is made of white brick with a diameter of 12 meters. The height of the stone stem of the dome reaches 8 meters and there is a skylight in the middle. According to the evidence, this dome was supposed to be two-layered; But this did not happen for two reasons: Either the outer cover is destroyed or the semi-finished construction process is abandoned.
Kerman Stone Museum
Kerman Stone Museum is a collection of more than 100 pieces of carved stone that belong to different historical periods. This museum was originally known as the “Treasure of Jabaliyeh (Historical Inscriptions)”. Among the important heritages of this museum, we can mention the following:
- Khajeh Atabak Mausoleum related to the Seljuk period
- The inscription of Abdar Ashkan Rabar Mosque, which is known as the thousand-year-old stone of Rabar, is one of the oldest inscriptions in the museum. This inscription belongs to the monument of a mosque in the northern heights of Rabar city of Kerman and is engraved on a natural stone piece in Kufic script.
- The smallest tombstone discovered in Kerman province which was discovered in 1998 by a farmer. This 26 by 22 cm stone is an inscription with two parts: a border strip containing Quranic verses and a part of Surah Al-Imran and the middle text including the name of the deceased and the year of death.
- Tombstone of Mirza Agha Khan, son of Mirza Ahmad Ali Khan Vaziri, writer of Kerman history
- Waqf letter of the fire temple of Qanateghistan village of Kerman, which dates back to 1282 AH and has been left after the destruction of the fire temple.