Everything about Jame mosque of Yazd
With today article of Chiyakotravel, we want to travel to the world city of Yazd to get acquainted with one of the most famous sights of Yazd, Jame mosque of Yazd. This beautiful mosque has its own beauties in every way and all its details show the art and creativity of Iranians in Islamic and Iranian architecture. For example, we can mention the most prominent part of the mosque, namely the minarets of Jame mosque of Yazd which is also one of the tallest minarets of mosques in the world. Join us to briefly explain the different dimensions of this beautiful mosque.
Why Jame mosque of Yazd?
- Jame mosque of Yazd is one of the glorious monuments of Islamic period of Iran and its name can be seen in UNESCO World Heritage List.
- The minarets of Jame mosque of Yazd with a height of about 52 meters are on the list of the tallest minarets in the world.
- The precision and elegance used in the decorations and tiles of this mosque are unparalleled.
- This building is one of the most famous attractions of Yazd.
- The construction of Jame mosque of Yazd has seen ups and downs and has been done for 100 years.
- The inscriptions of the mosque and the calligraphy on the tiles of this mosque are very impressive.
- The lighting in this mosque is done by the white color of the walls and their plaster.
Familiarity with Yazd Grand Mosque
We are going to Yazd; A little further from Fahadan neighborhood, we reach a beautiful and paved street that, after passing by the old bazaar of the city, leads us to one of the most beautiful mosques in Iran. The building has the tallest minarets among the minarets of Iranian mosques. The name of this beautiful building is Jame mosque of Yazd which is also called Kabir Grand Mosque. This mosque which has an area between 7,000 to 9,800 square meters, has a square plan and its construction is inspired by the Kaaba.
The original cornerstone of the mosque, like many mosques in Iran before Islam, was laid as a fire temple during the Sassanid period and later changed its use. The original building of the mosque was built during the reign of Buyid dynasty which is known as Atiq Mosque; But over time, other sections were added to the mosque and renamed from the Old Mosque to the New Grand Mosque.
This beautiful mosque consists of different parts such as the main porch, several Shabestans, krias, aqueducts, water wells, library and dome, each of which has been designed with special care and elegance. The most important and prominent part of this mosque is its minarets, which with a height of about 52 meters, have the tallest minarets among Iranian mosques.
There is an interesting point about this mosque that is only narrative; It is said that the soil used in the construction of this mosque is the soil of Karbala and the water used to prepare the mortar is rose water.
Jame mosque of Yazd was registered in the list of national monuments in 1313 AH. Also, this mosque was registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1396 with the number 1544 in the form of the historical context of Yazd.
History of Jame mosque of Yazd
Jame mosque of Yazd was first built in its current location as the Old Grand Mosque and then another section called the New Grand Mosque was added to it. After many years, these two buildings were merged and the name of the building was changed to Jame mosque of Yazd. In this section, we give a brief description of the construction history of this building.
Construction of the original building of Jame mosque of Yazd called Atiq Mosque
During the reign of one of the kings of Buyid dynasty named (Kalijar) who ruled Yazd between 489 and 511 AH, a mosque called Atiq or Shahrestan was built which is actually the original building of today’s Jame mosque. The Atiq Mosque was built in the old part of the city, which was called Hesar or Sharestan. In this mosque, Shah Garshasb Kalijar built parts such as summer Shabestan, porch and courtyard. It is said that this mosque had 3 main gates that opened to the sections of Sofe Maghsoura (a place of hypothetical activities such as prayers), Kolahdoozan bazaar and Kamalieh school in Yazd. After the main building of the mosque was built, in the same century, the daughters of one of the rulers of the Buyid dynasty, Faramarz bin Ali, added extensions such as a winter Shabestan next to the courtyard and porch, and finally, next to the Shabestan, a dome was built to be their burial place after their death. This section was called the girls ‘congregation or the girls’ queue.
It is good to know that the location of Atiq Mosque is in the northeastern part of the current mosque.
Architecture and different parts of Jame mosque of Yazd
In this section, we will examine the different parts of this beautiful mosque and the art of architecture used in these parts:
1- The space in front of the Yazd Jame Mosque
Opposite the eastern door of the mosque, there is a space in front of the mosque. This space consists of an octagonal pool in front of the door and a small marble column on which animal and plant motifs are carved and their heads are like a hollow plate. On their body, two verses of poetry are written in Naskh script, which unfortunately, due to the broken columns, the written poems are not very legible.
In the book of Yazd monuments, it is stated that one of the elders of the city named Mr. Vaziri believed that these two pillars were candlesticks. He also states his argument as follows:
In the past, there was a ruined caravansary next to Jame mosque of Yazd, then Amir Chakhmaq built a bath next to it called the Ayazi team, and then placed two large candlesticks in front of it to decorate the entrance of the bath.
2- Eastern head of Jame mosque of Yazd
The lofty and impressive entrance of Jame mosque of Yazd is one of the most important and famous parts of this building which dazzles the eyes upon arrival. The height of this entrance is 24 meters and on both sides of it, there are arches (wall view in the form of an arch that has no length and width), narrow and two tall minarets can be seen. The entrance of the building has a very elongated body and the titles of Shahrokh Teymouri and Mirza Jahanshah are written in Naskh script on it .
The entrance of the mosque collapsed once and was not repaired until 1314 AH; But in the years 1324 SH, with the help of “Haj Seyyed Ali Mohammad Vaziri”, the founder of the board of supporters of the mosque, it was repaired and became modern.
3- Minarets of Jame mosque
The minarets are the most prominent and magnificent part of the mosque which are located on the entrance. The length of the minarets is 50 meters (according to a tradition, 52 meters) and both of them have stairs, with the difference that one of the minarets has two stairs for movement and the other is a single staircase. Inscriptions in Kufic script are written on the minarets with unique tiles, the theme of which is the remembrance of God and the infallibles.
It is said that the minarets were built around 903 AD by the order of “Agha Jamaluddin Mohammad” known as “Mehtar Jamal” who was the minister of Yazd during the reign of Shah Tahmasb Safavid; But according to another version of Maxim Ciro (French architect), the minarets were built during the reign of Amirchakhmaq in 821 AH. A few hundred years later, around 1313, the minarets and the entrance to the salt fortune collapsed; But they were restored a few years later.
Entering the mosque and passing the counter and entrance, we enter the square space of Krias, the roof of which is made by the method of Karbandi. The most interesting part of Krias is the stone slabs mounted on the wall. The text of these stone tablets is the words and instructions issued by the rulers at different times throughout the history of the mosque. According to the stone tablets found in Krias, which belong to the eighth century, this part was called “atrium”.
The roof of Krias is dome-shaped and made of brick, and its facade is decorated with geometric shapes and very beautiful colors. An inscription has been written around the ceiling, the text of which is an ode by “Mohammad Hassan, the theologian of Neyshabur”. The construction of this part of the mosque is attributed to “Amir Shamsuddin Mohammad”; But most likely a hypothesis is wrong because the year of construction of the vestibule written on the inscriptions was built 40 years after the death of Amir Shams al-Din by order of Shah Yahya Muzaffar.
5- Altar of the mosque
Another spectacular part of the Yazd Grand Mosque is its altar, in the upper part of which decorations such as plastering and Mogharnas can be seen. This beautiful altar is made of mosaic tiles which is a combination of designs such as flowers and plants, and the words can be seen at the top of the altar. Also, on both sides of the altar, the date of completion of tiling and the name of its architect are written. According to this writing, the builder of the altar was “Bahauddin Muhammad bin Al-Hussein” who completed the construction of the altar in the month of Muharram in 777 AH.
6- Inner courtyard
The inner courtyard of the mosque is a rectangular space with a moonlight in the middle for prayer. In the eastern part of the courtyard, near Krias, a corridor with latticework was built which was called the “reading house” and was probably a place for i’tikaaf. In this courtyard, there is an altar that has blue tiles and the names of Allah, Muhammad, Ali, Hassan and Hussein can be seen on it.
7- Western Shabestan of Jame mosque
This Shabestan is made in a rectangular shape with a length of 38 meters and a width of 9 meters. In the upper parts of Shabestan, latticed windows and beautiful tiles belonging to the Timurid era can be seen. The western Shabestan was built during the reign of Amir Ghias and the name of the building was known as “Ghiasieh” until many years ago. This nave is now the permanent place of treasure and museum of Yazd Jame mosque.
8- Prince Shabestan
This beautiful Shabestan has 48 rectangular columns, the lower part of which is decorated with turquoise tiles. This building was built in the west of the northern courtyard and named after Prince Mohammad Vali Mirza in 1203 AH.
9- Main porch
The main porch is also rectangular and has an altar. At the entrance of the porch, there is an arched space on which Surah Al-Fatah is written. Of course, not all the verses of Surah Al-Fatah were written on the arch of the porch, and its continuation was on the upper edge of the walls on the right side of the courtyard, of which nothing is left now. It is very likely that the scribe of this section, was one of the most famous writers of his time.
As soon as you enter the main porch, two large columns can be seen on both sides on which beautiful calligraphy is written with Naskh and Kufic lines. The roof of the porch is decorated with the names of God and the Kufic script in the form of very beautiful rectangular tiles. Another notable part of this porch is the famous mosaic tile inscription on which the names of 12 Imams are written.
10- Dome house
The dome of this mosque has two shells and is dormant. The dome of this house is very beautiful and full of inscriptions with the names of God and holy Quranic verses. The dome is located in the middle and 4 earrings are located in its four corners. Inside the roof of the dome, beautiful geometric patterns can be seen with tiles, and the name of the architect of the dome is written under the title “Amal al-Abd Yazdi”. On the right side of the dome, there is a corridor that used to be a place for women to travel so that they can easily ask their questions to the Imam of the mosque without passing through the congregation of men. The altar of this part of the mosque is also very beautiful and is decorated with various decorations such as mosaic tiles and lines.
In the inner courtyard of the mosque, there are two aqueducts, one of which was supplied from the city of Zarch in Yazd and the other from the Mahmudabad aqueduct, which is called “Mardova” in the local language, but has now dried up.
12- Unappointed tombstones
There are a number of tombstones in this mosque that have been found from different parts of this great mosque. One of the tombstones was found in the ruins assigned to Aladullah Garshasb and the other was found in the greenhouse assigned to him. There are Kufic expressions on the tombstones.