About Fin Garden
We are going to a visit a city in the middle of the desert which is one of the manifestations of Iranian architectural art. In a corner of this desert city, we visit Kashan Fin Garden; A universal miracle of architecture that can bring you happy hours. We show you the pictures of Fin Garden and introduce you its different parts to see what beauties await you in this place. For better planning, we will tell you the best visiting time of Fin Garden and its entrance fee. Join today article of Chiakotravel.
Fin Garden is one of gardens in Kashan in where Fin bath is also located. This place regards as a location that Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (king) killed Amir Kabir. He was in charge of king’s prime ministry in 1852 B.C. Based on some proofs Shah Abass Safavid era’s artists built this historical and ancient place. Fin Garden has an extent of 23 thousand square meters. It also has an interior yard that surrounds by cylindrical towers and walls. In comparison with other Iranian gardens, there is plenty of water supply in this one. This historical garden is one of the most favorite sites among visitors in Isfahan in a way that it was the most visited heritage site in Isfahan during 2018 and 2019 Iranian new year (Nowruz).
Why Fin Garden?
- It is one of the most important and famous tourist attractions of Kashan.
- Finn Garden is an example of an Iranian garden whose name is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
- This garden was the place of assassination of Amir Kabir, the famous Supreme Leader of Iranian history, and an important event took place in it.
- The presence of a tea house in the pleasant atmosphere of this garden allows you to create pleasant hours for yourself in addition to enjoying the historical heritage.
- In this garden, you can also visit Kashan National Museum which has important and interesting works.
Introduction to Fin Garden | A masterpiece of Iranian architecture
Fin Garden is a beautiful and spectacular garden in Kashan whose name is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The garden with its tall trees, fountains and the sound of water passing along the pavement under your feet draws a magical place for you.
The area of the garden is 33,700 square meters and its royal appearance has led to it being called the King’s Garden. Walls, fortifications and cylindrical towers surround the central courtyard of this garden so that Fin garden is an example of a garden of Persian castles. Choosing this type of pattern and enclosing the beauties of the garden under a high wall shelter represent the royal function of the garden. Due to the presence of these walls, residents can have a safe place under the protection of the tower and fortification, and due to its volume, shape and height, royal glory is displayed.
National and world registration of Fin Garden
Fin Garden is a masterpiece of Iranian architecture that due to its great importance and need for further protection, was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran on December 6, 1963 with the number 238.
The amazing engineering of this garden has made it one of the 9 Iranian gardens that are on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
You can visit Fin Garden and the buildings inside it in Fin Garden. Like Monar Jonban, this heritage attracts many visitors from all around the globe each year.
We step into this garden to enjoy its magical beauties and watch history.
Based on some historical evidences, Fin garden has been constructed during Buyid dynasty. Some evidences argue that there was a huge earthquake in 1573 B.C which leaded to a comprehensive destruction of the garden. Old garden is the name of the rest of garden after the earthquake which is 100 meters far from New garden. Ilkhanate architectures extended the old garden mostly. By the way, Shah Abbas the Great is the person whom current Fin Garden is attributed to. Iran cultural heritage has introduced Ghiyāth al-Din Jamshīd al-Kāshānī as the garden creator, some universities resources argue that the designer is Sheikh Baha’I though.
History of Fin Garden From the time of Ardeshir Babakan until today
There is a lot of argues about the antiquity of the Fin Garden. Some date the garden to the time of Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty; But for the first time in historical sources, during the reign of Yaqub Laith Saffari, the founder of the Saffari dynasty, along with the Arab army from the central deserts of central Iran, there is talk of a garden in this area. This source indicates the existence of springs and gardens in a desert area.
Some other experts, based on historical sources, date the Fin Garden to the reign of Buyid. Some have attributed the existence of Fin Garden and its development and progress to the Ilkhanate period, and Yaghoot Hamavi – a famous geographer and historian of the seventh century AH – has also spoken about the people of Kashan wandering around the Fin Gardens.
Fin garden in Safavid era
In the year 951 AH, at the end of the reign of Shah Tahmasb – the second king of the Safavid dynasty – a terrible earthquake occurs and causes serious damage to the garden. Today, the remnants of that earthquake are a few hundred meters from today’s Fin Garden, known as the Old Garden. After the death of Shah Tahmasb, two members of the Safavid dynasty including Shah Ismail II and Mohammad Khodabandeh, the father of Shah Abbas, earned the power and with their weak rule caused the rule of Kashan to fall into the hands of the Turkmen for several years and many ruins were caused.
Shah Abbas I, the most famous and fifth Safavid king, after ending the sedition of the Turkmen, issued orders for the development of Kashan and the provision of means for the development of local industries and the improvement of general situation, and Mr. Khezr Nahavandi, the ruler of Kashan, was commissioned to carry them out. .
It was during this period that the modern Fin Garden was built and became known as the New Fin Garden. For this new garden, a sunny land with dimensions of 157 meters east and west length and 142 meters north and south width was selected and fenced. In the four corners of this land, round and high towers were built, and in the distance between both old and new gardens, a wide street and square were built for polo and clapping, and all kinds of competitions and games.
There is no consensus on who designed the garden. Cultural heritage introduces Ghiyāth al-Din Jamshīd al-Kāshānī as the designer of this garden, but academic sources and some experts consider the garden designer to be Sheikh Baha’i.
To reduce the risk of flooding, Shah Abbas built a strong dam with stones and mortar about a kilometer south of the garden which is still standing.
In the book of historical monuments of Kashan and Natanz cities, Hassan Naraghi talks about the construction of a palace in Bagh-e Fin during the reign of Shah Abbas I and also mentions the construction of high towers around it.
After the death of Shah Abbas I, the construction and development of the new garden continued during the reign of Shah Safi and Shah Abbas II, the sixth and seventh kings of the Safavid dynasty, and reached its peak of glory. The upper floor of the Safavid building was built during the reign of Shah Safi with wood and iron to allow him to see the surrounding landscape from the highest point.
Buildings such as the entrance, the Safavid pavilion and one of the baths, which we will talk about later, were built during this period. Shah Suleiman, the eighth king of the Safavid dynasty, built a plateau around the Fin spring, and probably for this reason the name of this spring was changed to Sulaimaniyah spring.
Fin garden in Zandieh era
From the late Safavid period to Zandieh period, and simultaneously with the invasion of the Afghans and the rare campaigns of Shah Afshar, this garden was far from its peak days and was forgotten. Karim Khan Zand, the founder of the Zandieh dynasty, ordered the ruler of Kashan, Abdul Razzaq Khan, to restore the garden and its buildings after several buildings were destroyed by a series of earthquakes. During these renovations, a new building was added to the garden, which became known as Karimkhani. In a poem by Azar Bigdeli, it is said about this:
In the reign of Karim Khan Shah and ruler of Ghobad land with the effort of pure ruler
When Fin garden was repaired, Azar said that the Finabad mansion had been built
Fin garden in Qajar period
During the reign of Fath Ali Shah, the second king of Qajar dynasty, due to his attachment to the beauty of the garden and the beauty of the Fin spring, many parts were added to this garden and almost most of the garden buildings today are the product of this king. This Qajar king ordered Haji Hussein Khan, the Prime Minister of Isfahan, the head of the Kashan , to repair and renovate this garden and its buildings and give it a royal appearance. He erected a building called Shotorgalo mansion next to Karimkhani’s private mansion and a small bath next to the Safavid bath garden, and finally completed the repair and construction work in 1189 AH. The main ossification of Fath Ali Shahi Shotorgalo is now located in the southeastern part of garden and is known by the same name.
Apart from Fath Ali Shahi Shotorgalo mansion, other changes of this period are:
- Adding paintings to the Safavid Shotorgalo building, including a picture of a hunt and a picture of the official court of Fath Ali Shah with the following verses:
This is the image of the emperor of heaven and earth, or this is the body of the seal and the moon
Anyone who looks at him says that the king of the world is Fath Ali Shah
- Building a large bath or royal bath
The mansion or private room of Nezam al-Dawlah by his son-in-law Ali Mohammad Khan Nezam al-Dawlah
In 1256 AH, Mohammad Shah, on his way to Isfahan, stayed in Bagh-e Fin for two weeks and issued orders to repair and maintain it. In 1258, he lived in Shah Neshin mansion for some time, and at the same time as his reign, the Shah Neshin mansion and the boiling pool were built in front of him.
Mohammad Shah, the third king of the Qajar dynasty, after a two-week stay in the garden, during a trip to Isfahan, ordered the maintenance of the garden and construction in it. By his order, the Shah Neshin mansion was built on the southern front of the garden and in front of it was a boiling pool
Fin Garden Architecture | Paradise species design
Using the elements of water and tree which are live elements, coming along with the structures which are static elements in architecture brings a lively identity to this historical and cultural heritage. Fin Garden is one of the most crucial Iran gardens which is still alive. This garden also introduces a way to generate cultural scenery creation.
Upon entering the garden, you will be enchanted by the heavenly space in front of you. What is most noticeable in this garden is the presence of water and trees as dynamic elements that have created an interesting atmosphere next to the building as fixed architectural elements. In the initial design of the garden, maintaining symmetry was of special importance, but gradually, with the intervention of kings, its amount has been reduced. This deviation from symmetry can be seen both in the axes of crossing in the garden and in the added structures after the Safavid period. There are some special features in garden architecture that we will discuss below:
Fin Garden is located in a rectangular space with high walls. The longitudinal axis of the garden can be seen in the northeast-southwest direction and right in the middle of it, and the main entrance of the garden is located at the end of this axis and on the northern front of the garden. The two main passages of the garden are:
- The main north-south passage that starts from a building called the entrance mansion.
- The main east-west passage that has two buildings of Amir Kabir Library and Kashan National Museum as two important points of the garden at the end. This passage has created two southern and northern parts, and it seems that the southern part is dedicated to the privacy and interior space of the garden, and the northern part is known as the external and public space of the garden.
With the intersection of these two passages, four gardens have been created in one garden, and at the intersection of these two axes in the heart of the garden, a bed has been created for the establishment of garden entrance and a wide bed for the main reservoir.
In addition to these two main passages, there is a side passage that runs from south to north along the garden. This axis starts in front of Shotorgaloo mansion on the south front of the garden and finally reaches one of the side entrances of the garden on the north wall.
Water circulation in the garden
Water is the most important element in Fin Garden, which can be seen in the following cases:
- Stagnant, in the pool in front of the pavilion and the Safavid pool house
- smooth, in streams
- Outburst, in fountains throughout the garden
- Boiling, the emergence of water from the regular holes in the bottom of the pool in the boiling pool and the Safavid Shotorgaloo house of Fath Ali Shah
Each of these forms of water has a special meaning, but in general, the presence of this large amount of water and trees with wide shade in this desert area and low water supply and water flow in atmospheres covered with turquoise tiles create a beautiful contrast in the viewer’s mind. Turquoise is a color that contrasts with the earthy color of the surrounding deserts and adds to the beauty of the garden.
This water first flows into a pool behind the garden. The difference in height from the surface of the streams creates fountains and water is thrown upwards. Water circulates in this garden and continues its way out of the complex. After leaving the garden, it first circulates the millstone and then, after a distance, merges with the water of the men’s spring and goes to the gardens.
In response to the question of why ponds, fountains and water features were created in the garden, the following reasons can be considered:
- Creating peace by looking at water in human beings
- Cooling the air in summer
- Resonating water music, especially in non-residential areas which causes relaxation.
The miracle of the fountains
No energy enters from outside for the flow of water inside the fountains, and only the law of surface difference and the use of the natural slope of the earth make this possible. Under all the atmospheres and around all the ponds, clay pipes called Tanbusheh are placed at a depth of one meter which are connected to the main ponds on one side and blocked on the other side at the end of the pond. Water enters from one side and exits of the fountains due to the blockage of the end of the pipe. Due to the sloping ground to distribute the pressure, the diameter of the pipe is considered different in different parts of it . The beginning of the pipe has a larger diameter than the end, and thus by dividing the pressure, water comes out of the fountain at an equal rate.
Fin Garden Trees
In addition to water, the presence of trees in the garden is significant and adds to the freshness of the space. There are about 579 cypress trees and 11 sycamore trees in the garden most of which are between 100 and 470 years old. The number and age of these trees show that the shady and evergreen cypress tree plays an important role in garden design and the planting of a few sycamore trees has been done only to increase the visual quality. Meanwhile, it seems that the use of cypress tree in Persian literature as a symbol of human beauty has also influenced this choice.
Over the past several years, and especially after 2007, a series of factors have caused drought and disease of trees, among which the following can be mentioned:
Improper physical restraint, unprofessional interference, severe frostbite, crossing of wires and cables and installation piping, creation of limestone and cement sidewalks and enclosing trees with it, improper irrigation, bed bug pest, neglect of tree recipe, management problems and neglecting expert opinions, these factors dried up at least 112 historic trees and damaged large numbers between 30 and 50 percent. Of course, cultural heritage officials reject these factors and blame the end of useful life of the trees for their drying up.
Fin Garden will fulfill your wishes!
Some people believe that in order to fulfill their desires, they have to throw a coin into the pool, and if the coin falls into the hole in the pool, they will find what they want. This seems more like a pastime and entertainment and superstition, but the philosophy of throwing coins in the water goes back to the Mithraic religion in Zoroastrianism. In this ritual, water is a symbol of purity and its followers gave a part of their property to the goddess of water to bring blessings to their homes.
In fact, pouring money into water is a kind of sacrifice, vow and forgiveness. It should also be noted that water is one of the four sacred elements in the ancient Iranian religions and the importance and sanctity of water has been mentioned many times in the Avesta. In Aban Yasht and Tir Yasht, which are parts of Avesta, much has been said about the sanctity of water, and Anahita, the goddess of water, has been praised.
The Greek historian and geographer Strabo talks about the importance and sanctity of water among the Iranians in a century BC :
When sacrificing for water, Iranians dig a pit by the river or the source and the shore so that the water is not contaminated with the blood of the victim.
In Yasna, part of Avesta, it is said about the need for water:
O Zoroaster! First, ask your wish(desire) from water.
Undoubtedly, this verse from Avesta can be the strongest answer to throwing coins into the water and explain the reason for this custom well. Of course, this custom is not limited to Iran, and in Italy and Russia there is such a belief among the people.
The reason for naming the Fin Garden
As we mentioned, this garden is also called the Shah’s garden. Many people think that this name was given to this garden because it belongs to a certain king, but the main reason for the meaning of the word king is that it is big, and it is probably known as the king’s garden because of the large size of the garden and even more than it is now. .
Due to its location in the Fin area, it is also known as the Fin Garden which has three quotations for the meaning of the word Fin:
- The word Fin means “terminus”, an ancient Persian word meaning terminal, and considering that this area was the end of the city, it seems to be named with a name.
- The Caspian tribes that came from the Siberian Plateau to the Central Plateau were originally two tribes, the Caspians and the Pins. Among them, the Pines settled in the same area and the Kas chose Kashan to live.
- The word Fin which is derived from the word Fineh, and Fineh is the name of the hats that the people of this area wore.
How to visit Fin Garden?
Visiting Fin Garden is a great experience for everyone especially those who are interested in architecture and history. This is only one of the many amazing places you should visit while traveling to Iran. Chiyacotravel executes various kinds of city tours such as Kashan tours for travelers from all around the globe to facilitate visiting this place as far as possible. As the place is a bit far from the city center, we recommend you to let us provide you the transfer and local guide in order to have an unforgettable visit. For more Information, please contact us.