About Arg-e Bam
Arg-e Bam or Bam and its Cultural Landscape located in a desert environment, on the southern edge of Iranian high and far south of Iran plateau, in Kerman Province, in southeastern Iran. The origins of citadel of Bam, Arg-e Bam traced back to the Achaemenid era 6th to 4th centuries BC and even beyond and Arg-e Bam (Citadel of Bam) was the largest Adobe complex and the largest mud brick city (biggest mud wall Castle)of the world that shining like a jewel among Iranian heritage.
Arg-e Bam Story
In the past the citadel was a fortified residential area, but now it is in ruins. However, UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Site lists it. Unfortunately, it destroyed and massively damaged in a terrible earthquake in 2003, and nothing remained, but ruins and only part of the original city. The city is now being slowly rebuilt. The entire building was a large fortress containing the citadel (Arg), but because of the impressive look of this citadel, the entire fortress named Bam Citadel or Arg-e Bam.
Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of the interaction between human and nature in a desert environment. In this rough environment, people has been able to have water by construction of Qanat. A rich resource of ancient canalization, settlements and forts as landmarks and representative of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh) combined with sun-dried mud bricks (khesht). The local styles and materials such as “Chineh, arches, and dome have been used in the site.
Generally it can said that Arg-e Bam is an ancient mud-walled city on the Silk Road, the world’s largest mud fortress and a don’t miss destination, Bam is a must see site in Iran’s history.
Bam bounded on the north and west by Kerman, on the southwest by Jiroft, on the south-east by Anbarabad and on the east by Mohammadabad. Bam’s climate is warm and dry, but due to proximity to the desert it is variable; sometimes it is the warmest place in summer, and the coldest in winter in whole country. Bam has an average annual rainfall of 68 mm and an area of 54 km square. Bam earthquake occurred on December 25 in 2003, and the number of victims of the earthquake estimated between 52,000 and 82,000. The earthquake destroyed more than 85% of Bam citadel.
There are many historical narratives about Bam and its name. In the encyclopedia of Moein, the word bam means the sound which is harsh and violent. Al-Baladan’s comment on Bam’s etymology is as follows:
One of the Achaemenid kings, Bahman son of Esfandiar, with the order of his father sent his military expedition from Fars to Zabul, one of the cities of today Sistan and Baluchistan. Faramarz son of Rostam informed this process, and he campaigned for the suppression of Bahman bin Esfandiar. The enemy met with their troops in the present Bam, and after the avalanche war, defeated Faramarz. The current location of Darzin and where they hung Faramarz known as Darestan. Bahman established a tower after the victory at the place of war which called Bam and stands for Bahman bin Esfandiar.
Arg-e Bam history
Bam is one of the most historic cities in Iran. Bam Citadel is the largest clay building in the world located in the city, and many tourists come to Iran to visit it. Bam has been known as Paris of Iran. Bam was mentioned as the center of Kerman’s industry in travel blogs of English traveler Patri Najar’s written in 1189 SH.
In Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Ardeshir Babakan’s Karnamak Book, Bam footprints can be seen. These books contain a district called Kajaran or Kozaran which actually located northeast of Bam and is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Bam.
Culture and Customs
Bam’s local clothing is actually the local clothing used elsewhere in Kerman, and this area has no special local clothing. Local women’s clothing includes headgear, veil, Dalagh Chador, dress, yale (coat), special shoes.
Men’s local clothing includes: felt hat, Shirts, long garments, Vest, Waist Scarf.
Baby clothing is:
Ear circumference: A triangle or quadruped cloth that is placed on the baby’s head.
Charqado: Small rectangular scarves.
Chino hat: a cap that is wrapped around and sewn on.
Latchak: a scarf
Hooded Shamilo: A velvet cape
Days of Muharram month are one of the most important and special days in Kerman and the city of Bam where traditional ceremonies such as Chel Manbaran, cooking Imam Hossein broth, Sofe Mourning House held.
Another special event in Kerman province and Bam city will take place at the moment of new year beginning. In the past, people believed that in that moment all current water stand still for a moment and called it “water sleep” in some parts of Kerman province. In some cities, such as Sirjan people cook Ash (a kind of soup by noodles). They believe that by doing such activities they will have the control of their live until the end of the year.
The language of people in Kerman province and the city of Bam is Farsi with special dialect of Kerman. This dialect is very similar to Shirazi dialect. In addition to Farsi, religious minorities speak their own language. Turkish and Baluchi linguistic tribes are also common.
Bam souvenirs include herbal essences, dates, Ghavoot and cumin.
handicrafts of Bam and Kerman province are: rug, carpet, Jajim, copper dishes and Ajideh.
Traditional Bam dishes include vegetable Ash(soup) or alfalfa and mastic juice.
historical attraction of Bam
Undoubtedly the most important historical attraction of Bam is Bam citadel, dating from Parthian or Achaemenid era, and used until the late Qajar period. Bam citadel reconstruction has been contributed by 12 foreign countries. Other historical attractions include traditional Bam Indoor Market, Sayedd Bam Mosque and Prophet Rasul Mosque.
natural attraction of Bam
Natural attractions and tourist destinations of Bam include the Adori River, Dehbekri Rural Area, Mount Barfu, Burnt Mountain, Khajeh Askari Village and Tang Taher Waterfall.