Everything about Amir Chakhmaq Complex
Amir Chakhmaq Square in Yazd is a place that you can not miss when traveling to the city of windmills. This square is a symbol of Yazd city and in addition to its historical and cultural importance, it is also important for people. Seeing the photo of Amir Chakhmaq Square in Yazd, you will be amazed by watching the structure in it and you would like to start getting to know this building. In addition to visiting the architectural beauty of the square, you can also tour Amir Chakhmaq Bazaar in Yazd and enjoy seeing handicrafts and colorful souvenirs, or spend time communicating with the locals of the city. Join this article of Chiyakotravel and visit this square.
Why Amir Chakhmaq Square?
- This square is located in the city of Yazd which is the first city in Iran in UNESCO World Heritage List.
- Amir Chakhmaq Square is one of the historical squares of the country and one of the most famous tourist attractions of Yazd.
- It is the most important square of Yazd and is very important for people of the city.
- Around this square, there is a historical texture of Yazd that awaits you with spectacular glory.
- Yazd Nakhl-Gardani ritual is held in this square in the month of Muharram and attracts many tourists.
- Amir Chakhmaq Square is a good destination for sightseeing, shopping and nightlife.
Familiarity with Amirchakhmaq Square Yazdi Epic Square
Amir Chakhmaq is a square in the historical context of Yazd which houses a collection of different buildings such as a bazaar, a Tekyeh, a mosque, two fountains and a tomb, and is one of the most significant historical and tourism complexes in Yazd.
Amir Chakhmaq Square or, as the residents of Yazd call it, Mir Chakhmaq Square has been one of the main gathering places for the people of Yazd during different times. After Iran revolution, it has become the center of public gatherings. That is why Amir Chakhmaq Square, in addition to being the symbol of Yazd province, is also known as the epic field of Yazd people.
Each of the buildings in this square has special features, so all of these buildings are on the list of national monuments of Iran:
- Tekyeh Amir Chakhmaq in 1330 SH with number 383
- Amir Chakhmaq Mosque on December 6, 1972 with the number 247
- All buildings and other extensions as Amir Chakhmaq collection with number 241
History of Amirchakhmaq Square
Formation of Amirchakhmaq
Amir Chakhmaq Square is a remnant of the ninth century AH and Timurid dominance over Iran and was built by Amir Jalaluddin Chakhmaq. He was one of the commanders of Shahrokh Teymouri. After reaching power in Yazd, with the help of his wife ,Fatemeh Khatun, he built a complex consisting of a Tekyeh, a square, a public bath, caravansary, a monastery, an aqueduct and a cold water well for the development of Yazd. The most important structure of these buildings was a mosque called New Jame Mosque in a place called Deh or Koy-e Dehok Sofla. He also created a large square in front of this mosque to give it a different look. That square became known as Amir Chakhmaq Square from that time, and a little later, the building of the mosque was also called Amir Chakhmaq Mosque.
Safavid and Qajar periods
This square was also known by the same name in the Safavid era. During the reign of Shah Abbas, changes and reconstructions were made in this complex, one of which was the construction of a four-story building on the caravansary. In the early thirteenth century AH, the square in front of the mosque and the entrance to the bazaar became a Hosseiniyah; Of course, most likely, it was not used as a Hosseiniyah, because at that time, the use of Hosseiniyahs was not common in its current form, and the construction of such spaces became common in Iran from Safavid period onwards. During the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, a person named Haji Hussein Attar added a part to Shabestan of the mosque and also restored parts of the mosque.
Before Pahlavi period, Amir Chakhmaq, like some other squares, became a tomb for dead, and some people buried their deads there due to the existence of the Husseiniya. When Pahlavis reached the power, this was stopped from the very first years of the government, and after destroying the tombs, the square returned to its original state.
During this period, many changes took place in the square, most of which were related to the time of Reza Shah. The street carnage of Pahlavi period were one of the important factors that caused the walls of the square to become gradually destroyed. As a result, they defined a small square and Amir Chakhmaq Mosque was merged with the square in front of Hosseiniya.
Later, after many changes, the southeastern body became the only remaining wall of the square which is the main body of Amir Chakhmaq.
Monuments of Amirchakhmaq Square
Amir Chakhmaq Square has a wide area and has the following heritages:
Amirchakhmaq Mosque | The oldest building in the square
Amir Chakhmaq Mosque, also known as the New Jame Mosque or Dehok Mosque, is the oldest building in the Amir Chakhmaq complex and is located on the south side of the square. The construction of this mosque dates back to 841 AH and in terms of beauty, size, importance and prestige is in second place among the mosques of Yazd, after Yazd Grand Mosque. Amirchakhmaq Mosque was a little further away from the urban context until the time of Mohammad Shah Qajar; But over time, it entered the urban context.
One entrance of the mosque is from the adjacent alley and the other way to enter it is from the courtyard of the tomb of Seti Fatemeh; Thus, there is a common courtyard between the tomb and the mosque. This mosque has two winter and summer Shabestan. In its summer part and above the altar, there is a very beautiful windbreak which is on the southwest side and overlooks the alley. The interesting thing about the winter Shabestan is that it is located on both sides of the entrance hall and its light is provided by marble.
Haji Ghanbar Bazaar
The oldest part of Yazd Bazaar is Haji Ghanbar Bazaar which is located in the east of Amir Chakhmaq Square, and is a relic from the ninth century AH. This bazaar is one of the buildings built by Nezamuddin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi. When he came to power in Yazd by the order of Jahanshah Qara Quyunlu, he built many monuments in Yazd one of which was a bazaar mansion for buying and selling handicrafts, and today it is known as Haji Ghanbar Bazaar.
Haji Ghanbar Bazaar Entrance
In the thirteenth century AH, on the entrance of this bazaar, a beautiful and tall Tekyeh was made in the style of other Tekyehs and husseiniyahs of Yazd which is one of the landmarks of Yazd. This huge building, most of which is decorated with Moqeli tiles, is considered one of the symbols of Yazd in such a way that when the name of Amir Chakhmaq is mentioned, the image of this building is formed in the mind while the builder is another person.
Tekiyeh is said to have a place with many pavilions, and during the mourning and Nakhl-Gardani ceremonies, the ruler in the royal part and the women in other pavilions watch the ceremony. As we mentioned, in the thirteenth century AH, two tall minarets were built in the style of Tekyeh in Yazd in the bazaar of this square, and we said that due to the changes of the Pahlavi period, part of the main wall of Amir Chakhmaq Tekyeh remained, which today remains as the only original wall. This wall consists of a three-story set of pavilions made of brick and stacked on top of each other.
The middle part of the building, which is exactly above the entrance of Haji Ghanbar Bazaar, is higher than other arches and has detailed tiled decorations. For this reason, and most likely, this part was a place for the elders of the city to settle in the center of Tekiyeh as the highest government resistance and to watch taziyeh which was performed in the middle area (square). During mourning and Nakhl-Gardani rituals, the ruler would stand in the middle or royal pavilion, and women would watch the ceremony in other pavilions.
Leaning minarets are located above the middle pavilions and have created a special awe. At that time, above these minarets, the muezzin were shouting the call to prayer to inform people of the time of prayer.
The entrance of Haji Ghanbar Bazaar is located in the middle of this building, and the Rasteh of the bazaar is behind it. It is possible to enter the water reservoir through one of the pavilions on the west side of Tekiyeh and the mosque can be seen next to this building.
Famous inscription on Tekiyeh
The inscription placed in the royal pavilion shows the date of 1296 AH (1258 solar) and indicates the age of more than 130 years of this building.
Other parts of Amirchakhmaq Square
- The baths and caravanserai of Baft on the west side
- Shaban Caravanserai on the right side of Tekiyeh or the northern part of the square
- Pond in front of Amirchakhmaq leaning with fountains
- Sculptures that depict the role and importance of water in the province and a kind of Saqqa culture
- Tomb of the Unknown Martyrs